Tuesday, December 30, 2008
Dishwashers are very much in demand as kitchen help. Most developed countries have them in their household and have been integrated in kitchen designs on fixed dimensions. Dishwashers offer advantages in sanitizing the dishes and at the same time reducing kitchen chores as dish washing is one of the major tasks to be done on a daily basis.
Installing a dishwasher is fairly easy and can also be installed professionally by an expert. The considerations are mainly the power source from where it will be plugged, the plumbing system from where it will be attached and the energy consumption it will add to the budget of the house. If a house is well planned, this is not an issue other than choosing the desired brand and matching color to the scheme of the kitchen.
A dishwasher is bought based on many factors, but mostly it makes a difference in place setting of washables inside its intended rack. Once this factor has been met, an expert user knows what it takes to get the most out of competing dishwasher brands in the market. The system and function of dishwasher is to save time and manual efforts in dishwashing using a different method and at the same time, sanitize the utensils as well.
Though dishwashers are fairly expensive, there is no reason why most households can't have them as part of their major appliances. For big establishments like restaurants, dishwashers serves the purpose very well in keeping the efficiency of the service area. Basically, dishwashers have few disadvantages other than higher electricity consumption because of heaters or dryers that go along with the equipment.
Before buying one, there are some points to consider in purchasing the best. Actually this varies based on individual need. The most important point is the location. Are you going to buy something for heavy-duty use or just needing a portable one which can be relocated in other areas of the house? This is crucial because dishwashers are run by electricity and it will need to have a stable place for accessibility to utilities and connections.
After the main factors are done, the next in line is the physical properties and "make" of the dishwasher itself. What kind of coating does it have in the specifications? For heavy use, it is advisable to buy epoxy-coated model rather than the old-fashioned baked enamel coating that chips of easily in time especially during subjection to constant heat. Will you need the latest technology like sensors? These latest add-ons have programming capabilities to help the busy user to monitor change in water temperature and detect the amount of residues in the washables.
The use of a dishwasher has to be mastered as well to manage some minor things like the use of right alkaline detergent. Another point is making an effort to at least clean the larger food residues before placing the plates in the dishwasher can be an enormous advantage rather than just placing it too soiled inside the rack. Glasses sometimes develop a haze due to some chemical reactions and alkalinity issues. This can be resolved by using soft water or by rinsing the dishes with vinegar solution.
By: Robert Janeway
Article Directory: http://www.articledashboard.com
Digital Cameras: Click And Pose
When it comes to the photography field, some years ago, people used bulky cameras to take photographs. Those heavy weight cameras were unable to carry and they did not offer clear and perfect images to their users. To avoid all these inconveniences, digital cameras are introduced in the market with high performance and quality. You can take bright images even in poor light condition with these cameras.
As photography is a common hobby for most of the people across the world, the popularity of these innovative devices has been increasing day by day. These sleek cameras offer crystal clear images and are equipped with all the user-friendly multi-functional features like recording videos of moving and still moments, editing and saving images etc.
As these sleek devices come with removable storage capacity, you can save thousands of images and video clips on these cameras. You can delete unwanted photos to free the memory capacity. Some of the removable storage technologies that are available in the market are the Multi-Media Card (MMC), Compact Flash (CF-I), Memory Stick, USB flash drive and xD-Picture Card (xD).
The present day market is offering numerous types of digital cameras like digital single lens reflex cameras, compact digital cameras, ultra compacts, line-scan camera, bridge cameras, digital SLRs and compact.
Most of the latest digital cameras come with USB port connectivity that can be used to connect cameras directly to computers to transfer data. Some of the advanced technology cameras have PictBridge standard that enables you to send images directly to a computer printer which is capable of a PictBridge standard without taking the help of computer. To take different types of images depending on the situations, the digital cameras have several mode options to choose from like exposure, light metering, white balance, aperture and focusing. They operate on rechargeable batteries which are small enough to fit in cameras.
Now-a-days, these digital camera features are equipped in most of the mobile phones, which are known as camera mobile phones. They act like digital cameras, but the image storage capacity of these handsets is less than the cameras. Some of the latest electronic devices that come with in-built-camera features are Blackberry devices, camcorders, laptops and PDAs. The common format for most of the digital cameras is JPEG (Joint Photography Experts Group) standard.
The Wespro Digital Camera, Sony Cyber-shot DSC-W130 Silver Digital Camera, Canon Power Shot A590 IS, Fuji film Fine Pix Z20FD and Sony DSC-W110 Silver Digital Camera are some of the cheap digital cameras that are available at affordable prices in the market. These cheap Digital cameras come with high-end technology and offer you great flexibility to carry them with you wherever you go.
To have a close and clear view of all the cheap digital cameras, visiting related websites over the Internet is the best source than the others. This helps you to get the best deal on purchasing the best quality digital camera.
By: Issac Brandon
Article Directory: http://www.articledashboard.com
Tuesday, December 23, 2008
In recent years working from home through a home based business have become very popular and if the owner stays focused it can become very profitable as well. Starting a home based business can be daunting.
Which business do I chose? How do I maximize my profit? Websites such as happilyhomebased.com, help take the fear out of this decision by offering thousands of home business opportunities depending on your interest or investment levels. But how do you take the next step and make the home business life work for you? By staying focused on tasks, minimizing distractions, and managing time you will enjoy profitability and flexibility in your home business.
Running a home based business requires focus. The old adage that time is money is true no matter where your workspace is located. Start by creating tasks for yourself. It does not matter where but most standard computer software offers a calendar to keep items tidy. Common distractions are pets, phones, children, household chores, television, radio, visitors.
If you want to focus on your home based business with your daily commitments, a good suggestion is to keep a master list of tasks including the above mentioned to plan ahead. Keep focused on running a home-based business by getting your priorities straight, setting goals, scheduling your time, taking breaks, and establishing a daily routine
Also, dedicate a space in your house solely for your home based business. This includes keeping free of personal financial information, kits, pets, etc. Include all items necessary for your home business such as paperwork, a phone and a computer. Reserving a room in your home solely for use for the business will also help in focusing in work and carryout plans per your schedule.
In home based businesses, the flexibility of working at home is a major motivation. However if time management and focus are not considered then it can become a serious disadvantage. Set priorities and effectively manage your time between business and family life. Become aware of the home based business difficulties by taking time to think about how to solve them, you’ll make your home based business profitable starting today!
By: Brett David
Article Directory: http://www.articledashboard.com
Sunday, December 14, 2008
How to Give Money as a Gift
By eHow Culture & Society Editor
Money can be the perfect solution for those hard-to-shop-for types. Here's how to make the gift a bit more personal.
- Put money or a check in an envelope, or stash it in a money card or greeting card
- Make a money tree with the cash made to look like blossoms, if you plan to give money as part of a group. Highlight the really big donors.
- Alternatively, present the group gift in a card with the names and addresses of all givers, so each can get a thank-you card
- Include a typewritten note giving the receiver instructions on how to use, access or continue the gift if it is in the form of stocks, bonds, saving bonds, savings account, trusts or investments.
- Add a personal touch to the gift with a suggestion about how the recipient might spend the money: "Hope your trip is endlessly wonderful," or "Old car. New tires."
- Give travelers' checks for someone about to embark on a trip, $50 in a baby bottle for an expectant couple, a bill inside a schoolbook for a recent graduate or cash in a piece of tulle and white ribbon for a bride.
Things You’ll Need:
- Gift Ribbons
- Baby Bottles
- Electronic Greeting Cards
- Gift Cards
- Money Cards
- Gift Bags
- Gift Certificates
- Travelers' Checks
- You can also buy foreign currency to give to someone embarking on a trip.
- Start a savings account for your favorite niece or nephew
- Ask the bank for new bills.
- Money can seem like an impersonal gift. If you're shopping for your significant other, your mother's 60th birthday, or your best friend's wedding shower, try to put more time and thought into your present.
- Never send cash through the mail.
source : http://www.ehow.com/how_1719_give-money-gift.html
Monday, December 8, 2008
Tornado Fact 1. The deadliest ever tornado was the 'Tri-State' tornado that passed through Missouri, Illinois and Indiana on March 18th 1925. During its 3½ hour life this tornado killed 695 people along its 219 mile path.
Tornado Fact 2. Tornadoes are measured and rated using the Fujita scale.
Tornado Fact 3. Tornadoes tend to occur in mid-latitudes, and as they are restricted to land masses this means mainly in the northern hemisphere.
Tornado Fact 4. Those over the US tend to be the most violent as the North American continent has a combination of warm, moist Gulf air from the south colliding with cold air travelling down from the north west, producing ideal tornado forming conditions.
Tornado Fact 5. On some days up to 20 tornadoes may be spotted in Tornado Alley- the flat country of the mid-west stretching from Texas through to Oklahoma and Kansas.
Tornado Fact 6. A wind speed of 280mph was ascribed to a tornado that hit Texas in April 1958
Tornado Fact 7. The average life-span of a tornado is approximately 15 minutes. However some can last much longer, on 26th May 1917 the Mattoon-Charleston Tornado lasted seven and a half hours and travelled 293 miles.
Tornado Fact 8. A 'super Outbreak' of tornadoes during 3rd and 4th April 1974 saw 148 individual tornadoes cross and devastate and area from Alabama to Michigan.
Tornado Fact 9. Although they can and do travel in any direction, the majority of tornadoes travel from south-west to north-east.
Tornado Fact 10. The US endures around 750 tornadoes annually.
Tornado Fact 11. Tornadoes can occur at any time of the year, although there tends to be a peak in the US in Tornado Alley during May and June.
Tornado Fact 12. Few people survive seeing the inside of a tornado vortex. Bill Keller from Kansas survived such a vortex in June 1928: "A screaming, hissing sound came directly from the end of the funnel, and when I looked up I saw right into the very heart of the tornado...it was brilliantly lit with constant flashes of lightning...around the rim of the vortex, small tornadoes were constantly breaking away and writhing their way around the funnel"
Tornado Fact 13. The inside of the funnel contains extremely low pressure equal to the pressure difference between ground level and an altitude of 4,900 feet - giving huge suction power
Tornado Fact 14. In the town of Natchez, Mississippi, in 1840 a tornado one mile wide touched down killing 48 people on land and drowning a further 269 in river boats and steam ships on the Mississippi river.
Tornado Fact 15. A waterspout is a tornado that occurs over water rather than land. However they are generally less violent, and will not move systematically northeastwards like a tornado would.
Tornado Fact 16. A bridge is not a good place to shelter from a tornado! Generally the confined space will increase the overall wind speed. This is despite well known TV footage of a news crew sheltering under a bridge. They did not receive a direct hit from the tornado and the bridge was of a rare design where they could crawl amongst the exposed girders for shelter and grip.
Tornado Fact 17. The most northerly tornado ever observed was on August 26th, 1976 at Kiana, Alaska, 54 miles north of Anchorage.
Tornado Fact 18. Well this is advice, more than fact. If you are caught out in the open by a tornado with no nearby buildings to shelter in, lie in a ditch, or lowest possible area, and protect your head and neck with your arms. Then pray.
Tornado Fact 19. Tornadoes are transparent, and appear so in the early stages of development, until dust and debris are picked up and give them colour.
Tornado Fact 20. Only 2% of tornadoes are classed as violent (F4 and F5), but these account for 70% of all tornado deaths.
Tornado Fact 21. 70% of all tornadoes are weak (F0 and F1), and account for less than 5% of all tornado deaths.
Tornado Fact 22. 50% of all fatalities from tornadoes occur amongst residents of mobile homes.
Tornado Fact 23. Hurricane Beulah spawned 115 tornadoes over Texas in September 1967.
Article Directory: http://www.articledashboard.com
While aging gracefully can result in a loss and concentration and difficult recalling where one has left certain items, it may be a sign of a much greater problem.
Alzheimer's disease can affect a person's daily life and the life of their loved ones negatively, and it is important to recognize the signs of this illness in order to better treat it.
Alzheimer's requires treatment early on by a medical professional, and it is important to recognize the warning signs that it may be time to visit a doctor.
Individuals who suffer from Alzheimer's have a hard time with even basic tasks, especially memory recall. Someone may intend to call a friend and forget, or need to attend a social function and fail to show up due to poor memory.
This behavior varies depending on how active of a lifestyle that the individual leads, but a noticed increase in memory loss is a sure sign of the disease.
Unusual dress can be an obvious sign of Alzheimer's disease where one may wear improper clothing for the season, such as a winter coat during a summer day.
Bathing can be a sign of Alzheimer's as a lack of distinction between hot and cold, which can result in someone with the disease scalding themselves with hot water.
Those with Alzheimer's disease may have a hard time remembering to pay their bills or mortgage note on time.
In addition, they may lack impulse control when it comes to spending money, making foolish decisions. Control can be improved through therapy, which should allow one to maintain a reasonable level of activity.
A common sign in moderate Alzheimer's disease is listlessness, which can result in an individual showing a lack of interest in life.
They may sleep in for hours past their usual waking time or participate in non-demanding activities such as listening to a radio show or static for hours at a time.
Memory loss also becomes a problem with Alzheimer's disease, where an individual forgets places, events, or people more frequently as time progresses. In moderate to severe Alzheimer's, individuals may end up in a place and not remember where they are and how they got there.
With so many signs of Alzheimer's disease, it can be difficult to make sure that your loved one has the disorder. Since recognizing the symptoms of Alzheimer's is a subjective process, it is important to spot problem behaviors and realize that they may be a sign of a greater problem.
Early detection is critical to a proper treatment plan, so one should set up a doctor's appointment without delay if they are concerned.
By: Juliane Anders
Article Directory: http://www.articledashboard.com
Saturday, December 6, 2008
For a large number of women, the whole cycle of cramping, bloating, mood swings and acne pimples breakouts occur every month. It is commonly known among medical experts that acne is influenced by hormones, but the amount of study on this subject has been limited until recently. Dermatologist Alan Shalita conducted a recent research and confirmed that 50% of women experience acne pimples breakouts during the week before their period begins.
This type of adult acne is known as hormonal acne. And in some situations it does not respond to traditional acne treatments such as topical retinoids and systemic or topical antibiotics. There are several signs that can help you and your doctor identify your hormonally-influenced adult acne. These signs include:
Adult acne breakouts that appear for the first time in adults
Acne breakouts that come before the menstrual cycle
A history of irregular menses
Increased amount of oil on the face
Hirsutism (excessive growth of hair, or hair in unusual places)
Increased levels of male hormones in the blood stream
Although hormone induced acne usually begins around the ages of 20 and 25 years, it can occur in teenage and mature women also. But it is most common in women above the age of 30 years. These women usually experience acne pimples on their chin and on their jaw line. In some women the acne pimples might occur on the chest and back, but most breakouts usually occur on the face. Hormone induce acne is usually moderate. You might wonder how it starts.
Adult Hormonal Acne usually begins at puberty. Before a child reaches puberty (around the age of nine or ten), the adrenal glands starts producing dihydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS). This is an androgen ("male" hormone). Other androgens that are produced in a woman's body include testosterone and dehydrotestosterone (DHT). And they start to be produced in the body around puberty. These hormones stimulate the sebaceous glands to produce more sebum (oil). This is the reason why teenagers have oily skin and acne is common in teenagers. And since the hormones that stimulate the sebaceous glands to produce more sebum (oil) are "male" hormones, teen acne is more severe in boys.
So many women pass into adulthood with their acne still being a problem in their lives. Some women might not develop adult acne until their 20s or 30s, usually experiencing acne breakouts a week before their menses. Why is this? During a woman's normal menstrual cycle, if she is not taking any hormonal birth control pill, the level of estrogen in her body reaches a peak at mid-cycle and then drops as she nears her period.
After ovulation, the ovaries start producing progesterone which is another hormone that stimulates the sebaceous glands to produce more sebum (oil). This increased oil on the skin can only mean one thing, more acne breakouts. These hormones are also the reason why some women experience acne breakouts during pregnancy. Some women also experience acne pimples breakouts after menopause. This is because the estrogen levels begin to reduce and testosterone becomes the prevailing hormone.
So how can this type of acne be cured or treated? Since this kind of acne is caused by hormones the best acne treatment is one that balances the hormones and also prevents acne causing bacteria from causing inflammation on the skin. There are a few products in the market that can actually get rid of your adult acne and to get a listing of the best products
Article Directory: http://www.articledashboard.com
Tuesday, December 2, 2008
The California Mega Millions Lottery is one of the most exciting lottery games in the world. You have two chances to win a California Mega Millions drawing every week. The Mega Millions drawing is held every Tuesday and Friday night at 8:00 p.m. Pacific time. You can watch televised drawings on KBFX TV during the 10:00 news, or you can check on your official state lottery website. You can also visit the official Mega Millions lottery website to see the latest drawings and winning numbers.
Winning the California Mega Millions Lottery
Each time there is a Mega Millions drawing, the lottery commission decides whether or not a winning ticket has been sold. If at least one winning ticket has been sold, then the Mega Millions jackpot returns to its base number, which is twelve million dollars. If no Mega Millions jackpot winning ticket was sold, then the jackpot rolls over into the next drawing. This allows the jackpot to grow to extraordinary amounts, making Mega Millions one of the most lucrative lottery games in the country.
However, the odds of winning a Mega Millions drawing are still very slim. It may seem virtually impossible to match all six winning Mega Millions lottery numbers, but you can also win prizes for matching five Mega Millions lotto numbers or less. Thus, you have a pretty good chance at winning at least a small prize. Also, every time you pick the correct Mega Ball lotto number, you win something.
California Mega Millions Lottery Tickets
You can purchase a Mega Millions lottery ticket in several different states. However, the Mega Millions winning numbers are always the same whether you are playing the California Mega Millions or the New York Mega Millions. You also do not have to live in the state in which you purchase your Mega Millions ticket. For instance, if you live in New York, you can still purchase a California Mega Millions ticket and win.
How to Buy California Mega Millions Lottery Tickets
When the Mega Millions lottery jackpot is high, the lines at lottery terminals can be very long. You can avoid the long lines by logging onto your official state website. These sites explain how to purchase tickets, and often times tickets can be purchased online so you can play most state lotteries from the comfort of your own home. You can also refer to official state websites for custom lottery news.
Many sites offer lottery number generators to help make your lottery number picking easier for you. If you would like to purchase your tickets in person, you can also visit a local lottery terminal. You can also log onto Lucky Lotto for all your lottery needs. This site offers the player the opportunity to play most state lotteries from the comfort of their own home. Make sure to visit LuckyLotto for all of your custom lottery news and check out our new LuckyLotto lucky lottery number generator! No matter how you choose to purchase your tickets, or which tickets you choose to buy, you're bound to have some fun!
Article Directory: http://www.articledashboard.com
Wednesday, November 26, 2008
By: Sarah Martin
We have decided that knowledge of the physical world is just the tested propositions achieved by the intelligent use of the data of observation. These propositions are referred to the physical world as their object of judgment. We come to the decision that physical things have size, exclude one another, are massive, have structure and organization, have capacities for action, and behave in certain describable ways.
In the most natural fashion, we make claims to a valid knowledge of this sort, and, so far as we can see, skepticism has no logical basis against it. The foundation of modern idealistic skepticism is the refusal to distinguish between the datum of perception and the object of perception, or between a sample petition and a citizen petition.
We think physical reality in terms of our knowledge of it. It is this thinking physical reality in terms of our knowledge which the reference of our knowledge to reality means. We are confined to knowledge since we cannot intuit physical reality; but we have given concrete reasons for our belief in the correspondence of datum and object.
The tests of conformity are internal or experiential, and are the tests applied to particular judgments from the perceptual to the conceptual level. But we have given the whole resultant construction its ultimate foundation by pointing out the responsible conformity of perceptual data to the physical existents which are the objects of perception. These latter we have been accustomed to call the controls. When this situation is once clearly understood, it will be realized that the validity of knowledge of the physical world is its conformity to reality.
In the light of this interpretation we can examine the structure of our critical knowledge about physical things. An explicit act of knowledge seems to involve at least three factors: (1) the affirmed existent with its determinate nature and continuities; (2) the propositional content within consciousness; and (3) the act of reference of the second to the first as informative of it.
This analysis separates what is given together in a complex act of judgment, and yet it does not falsify the facts of the case. It appears that these factors are distinguishable in any judgment concerned with physical things. The physical existent is the subject of the judgment, and its name or symbol is the subject of the proposition; the predicate is the information about it; and the copula indicates the reference or relevance of the two.
We think the existent affirmed in terms of the "objectives" —to use a word of Meinong—that it has a particular structure, size, position, powers, etc. It should be noted, however, that critical realism differs from common sense in that it does not suppose the subject of the judgment to be literally presented, nor does it assign to the subject any sensuous content. We mean the thing rather than see it, and our knowledge is a series of abstract statements for which petition letters are merely the cues.
The easy way in which the realistic judgments of common sense can be developed into the framework of critical realism drives home the point made earlier, that critical realism can retain the truth of common sense while passing beyond its naivete. It also accounts for the fact that the critical judgments of science attach themselves to the matrix of common sense with such readiness.
All the time, however, we know that science deals with the imperceptible. The object of perception is identical with the object of knowledge, and so the subject of judgment is the same; but the interpretation of this object is different in the two cases. For the one, it coincides with the content of perception ; for the other, this content is a mental datum correlative with the object. It is an appearance of the object.
By: Sarah Martin
Article Directory: http://www.articledashboard.com
As we know the bathroom is one of the most frequently used rooms in our home. It is repeatedly used for bathing, relaxing and grooming starting from early morning to late night.
A well organize bathroom can be both safe as well as provide opulent bath and optimum relaxation. The purpose of a bathroom remodeling is to make it more orderly and organized by using the space of bathroom properly, even if it may be a small bathroom.
A well organized bathroom can be more stylish, relaxing and spacious so that you can use you bathroom easily. Successful bathroom storage ideas are based on one theme to keep your necessary bathroom accessories in the reach of your hand.
For enhancing the storage space in bathroom, one might choose different types of bathroom cabinets, faucets, mirrors, screen showers and other bathroom accessories and furniture.
Use Bathroom Cabinets for Storing:
Bathroom cabinets are the most stylish and enhancing bathrooms items generate storage space in side the bathroom for storing bath accessories such as medicines and first aid box, deodorants. Besides that one can keep napkins and towels dry at the time of showering in side the bathroom. At least storage space is needed for toilet paper, cleaning supplies and all personal care products.
These are powerful items to keep the bathrooms more orderly and organized so that one can get every essential day to day bath accessories within the hands reach. Aluminum Cabinets, Illuminated Cabinets, Metal Decor Cabinets, Linen Cabinets, Stainless Steel Wall & Floor Cabinets are some of very popular cabinet types usually preferred by most of the home owners.
Brief information about different bathroom cabinets and their utilities in storing the bath accessories are given as follows:
Aluminum bathroom cabinets are very stylish and provide easy solutions for storage and concealing for modern bathrooms. Unlike wood cabinets and aluminum cabinets are the resistant to mold, mildew and corrosion. These are very helpful for rust protecting and provide enough storing space for bathroom towels and other bathroom accessories.
Illuminated bathroom storage cabinets are excellent for storage as well as providing light to the face for applying make-up, plucking eyebrows or for shaving. With clean lines and double sided mirrored doors, they offer a practical and functional addition for a bathroom while looking good and complementing most decorative themes. Bathroom products can be stored within the cabinet leaving the bathroom clutter free. Using the cabinets help to put away day-to-day toiletries. Clear surfaces will make the room look bigger and specious.
Metal Decor Cabinets:
Metal decor bathroom cabinets are another better option for storage in luxurious bathrooms. These are furnished with metallic coated alignments in order to give an impression to the interior architecture of the bathroom. These cabinets provide a plenty of storage space to hide al most all the bathroom functional and make the bathroom specious.
Linen bathroom cabinets are the best storage space providers for a bathroom. Towels and other essential accessories can be kept within the cabinet. Freestanding linen cabinets give the bathroom adequate storage space.
Stainless Steel Wall & Floor Cabinets:
Stainless steel bathroom cabinets offer a great solution to storage space in a bathroom with style, available in different sizes and designs for different types of bathrooms requirements. Wall cabinets are good for limited areas and have many drawers to store the bathroom products. Both the wall and floor cabinets are best options for storage.
Bathroom mirrors reflects the inside as well as out side lights and distribute the light rays so as to make the bathroom brighter which, ultimately gives a sense of openness and spacious looks to your modern bathroom.
All the above storage accessories should be taken in to account before thinking about enhancing adequate storage space. It will be better if consulted with an experienced interior designing professional in order to get required knowledge for the best use of the bathroom space, matching color combination and the perfect placement of bathroom accessories in the bathroom.
Article Directory: http://www.articledashboard.com
Architectural engineering, basically, can be defined as the incorporation of the knowledge, principles and technology of engineering to architectural design and building construction.
Architectural engineers can be defined as engineers in the structural, mechanical, electrical, construction and other engineering related aspects of building design and construction.
They sometimes practice structural engineering as an aspect of architectural design closely working wth other architects and engineering specialists.
Architectural engineering sometimes includes conducting MEP work on the design as well. Though when engaged in building design mechanical and electrical engineering specialists known as MEPs are called in.
Architectural engineering jobs are titled differently in different countries. Jobs in architectural engineering in the US require a licensed engineering professional who has graduated from an architectural engineering university.
In some other countries, providing architectural services is often referred to as architectural engineering. The profession of designing, planning and monitoring the construction of a building forms the professions of architecture.
This is sometimes synonymous with building engineering as in Japan. Building or architectural engineering jobs are held synonymous with architecture.
In Korea and other countires the word for architect literally translates to architectural engineer. In countries such as Germany and Austria architecture graduates are awarded an engineering degree.
In certain universities students are required to specialize in a particular area of Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC), plumbing, fire protection, electrical, lighting, transportation, and structural systems.
Whereas, some universities award students a general Architectural or Building engineering degree.
Architectural engineering entails the inclusion of architectural, structural, mechanical and structural components.
Each of these have their own educational requirements and hence can be fulfilled by way of an degree after completing a university program.
As opposed to traditional engineering, architectural engineering wields a multi disciplined approach.
This sets it apart from single, integrated fields of study. The field seeks to integrate building systems within the framework of overall building design by way of study and appreciation of architecture.
It includes the design of buildings taking into consideration various components and facilities such as Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC), plumbing, fire protection, electrical, lighting, transportation, and structural systems.
Article Directory: http://www.articledashboard.com
Tuesday, November 25, 2008
How music can help people to get rid of their stress?
Music can do wonder and alleviate bodily pains as well as mental stress. You can feel the comfort while listening to the beautiful and soothing music.
Music has a great power to heal and the charm of music itself is so soothing that people who are stressed out can get rid of all their pains by listening to some light music.
Even when you are tired, you can listen to some light music to get rid of your tiredness.
• Example from Bible: From the ancient times we all know how music played its role to alleviate the pains of people. For example the Bible, David played his harp in order to alleviate the pains of King Saul. Some of the best recommendations from the doctors are the following:
• Play music and sing songs: Play the music and sing along with it. It works like magic in the worst of time. Even if you can’t play any instrument, you can listen to music and sing softly with it. It also works while you are stressed out.
• Heartbeat of the unborn infant: Another vital thing that rejuvenates a person instantly is the heart beat of the baby who is still inside the mother’s womb. It is so pleasant to hear the heartbeat that even people suffering from worst mental disease can be rejuvenated by it.
• Psychological response: According to popular research, music produces in the physiological response system and many psychological patients revived their senses after listening to the music. Music pertaining to loud drum beats was extremely soothing. So were the flute music in place of soothing Mediterranean and Celtic Music.
• Biological synchronization: Whenever the proper sounds were experienced by the listener, amazing right/left brain hemisphere synchronization occurred. Thus it has been observed that the entire human energetic system is extremely influenced by sounds, the physical body and energy stores react specifically to some specific tones and frequencies.
• Deep breathing; music during dental procedure: Another important stress control devise is deep breathing. In this method, the production of serotonin in the body accelerates. Music also relieves the pain which was caused during dental procedures.
• Reduce heart rate and increase body temperature: Sometimes we can hear the music while we are working. This is also extremely beneficial since it helps to promote higher temperature of the body and also to reduce the heart rate.
Article Directory: http://www.articledashboard.com
Wednesday, November 5, 2008
Battling Malaria - It's Causes and Cures
By Ms CiCi
Malaria is is transmitted by the bite of a mosquito found in tropical and sub tropical areas including parts of the Americas, Asia and Africa. Malaria is and caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium, a parasite that spends part of its life cycle inside the mosquito, and is passed along to humans by mosquito bites.
Malaria parasites are transmitted from one person to another by the female anopheline mosquito. The malaria parasite must grow in the mosquito for a week or more before infection can be passed to another person. These parasites infect red blood cell(haemo protozoa).
Some strains of mosquito born malaria are worse than others. Up to 500 million people experience a bout of malaria each year, suffering anemia, fever, chills, headache, muscle aches and weakness, vomiting, coughing, diarrhoea and abdominal pain, followed by internal bleeding, kidney and liver failure and can result in coma and death. People with malaria can die if they do not receive proper medical treatment.
Malaria is commonly associated with poverty, because poorer people are more likely to become infected. However, Malaria is also a cause of poverty because it hinders economic development. Malaria is also becoming a problem for wild populations, such as African penguins. African penguins are particularly vulnerable to the malaria parasite because they are considered to be and are classed as a "naive" population.
People can get malaria if they come into contact with infected blood. People who donate blood will fill out a registration form and the questions on this form will determine if the donor is at risk for passing on live mosquito born parasites to someone else. If they are, the donor will not be allowed to give their blood, usually for another month.
However, people who have had 'malignant tertian fever' or 'black water fever' will never be a blood donor as those parasites will always remain in one's blood, though very minutely, with the body's natural defenses not allowing the parasite to grow and infect the carrier.
However, if that carrier becomes very ill, their body defenses will naturally become low, giving rise to the possibility of the parasite to grow and manifest itself once again in another bad case of malaria. Malaria is caused by protozoan parasites of the genus plasmodium.
Malaria is caused by a parasite that spends part of its life cycle inside the mosquito, and is passed along to humans by mosquito bites. The idea behind the project is to make mosquitoes resistant to the parasite by eliminating genes required in the mosquito for the parasite to live. Malaria is caused by infection with a mosquito-borne parasite of the group that is able to infect red blood cells (haemo protozoa).
There are four species of malaria that infect man: Plasmodium falciparum, so called 'malignant tertian fever', is the most serious disease that is responsible for about 2-million deaths per year, predominantly in young children in sub Saharan Africa, Plasmodium vivax, a relapsing form of the disease, Plasmodium malariae, and Plasmodium ovale.
Infected female Anopheles mosquitoes carry Plasmodium sporozoites in their salivary glands. If they bite a person, which they usually do starting at dusk and during the night, the sporozoites enter the person's body via the mosquito's saliva, migrate to the liver where they multiply within hepatic liver cells. Infection with Plasmodium falciparum kills approximately 1-2% of those who come down with it.
Malaria is notorious for mimicking a wide variety of different illnesses, particularly when it occurs in its milder forms. Malaria is responsible for as many as half a billion cases of illness each year. When contracted by pregnant women, malaria kills up to 200,000 new-born babies each year.
Malaria is a severe disease that can be fatal, but can be treated with antimalarial drugs. Malaria treatment is not always straightforward and may be complex. Contacting the CDC for the latest treatment guidelines and drug regimens is advised. Early treatment is required to avoid severe illness or death.
Wednesday, September 24, 2008
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Nick Young (born June 1, 1985, in Los Angeles, California) is an American professional basketball player who current plays for the Washington Wizards of the NBA at both the shooting guard and small forward positions.
High school career
Young flunked out of two high schools before finally being admitted to a third, Cleveland High School, in suburban Reseda, California. He averaged 27.2 points and 10.8 rebounds as a 2004 senior at Cleveland, earning 2004 CIF L.A. City Section, Los Angeles Times All-City and San Fernando Valley first team honors. He shot 57.3% from the field and 46.8% from three-point range (52-of-111), had 48 steals and 41 blocks as Cleveland finished 25-4. Young was tabbed the seventh-best player in the country by HoopScoop and listed by prep basketball guru Frank Burlison as among the Top 50 recruits in 2004. He once scored 56 points in one game and had 23 rebounds in another. He earned CIF L.A. City Section first team honors in 2003 and was included in a list of Top Seniors by Athlon heading into 2004
Young played for the University of Southern California from 2004 to 2007 and was first team all-Pac-10 in 2005-2006 and 2006-2007. In the 2007 NCAA Tournament, Young led the fifth-seeded Trojans to a berth in the Sweet Sixteen, where they lost to the one-seeded North Carolina Tar Heels, 74-64. Along the way, Young led USC to a first-round win against Arkansas. In the 2nd round, Young led the team over the Texas Longhorns in a 87-68 rout of the team featuring the National Player of the Year, Kevin Durant.
Following his junior season, he announced on April 15, 2007 to The Los Angeles Times that Young would forgo his senior year to turn professional and enter the 2007 NBA Draft, where he was selected with the 16th overall pick by the Washington Wizards.
Nick Young was selected 16th overall by the Washington Wizards in the 2007 NBA Draft. Young started his first career NBA game on December 15, 2007, against the Sacramento Kings. He scored a career-high 27 points on 30 March 2008 against the Los Angeles Lakers.
Nick Young is also the main subject of a documentary titled Second Chance Season, in which his exploits, short-comings, and success are reviewed by the biopic's director, Daniel H. Forer.
Young lives in Great Falls, Virginia in a house that he is renting from Gilbert Arenas
source : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nick_Young_(basketball)
Wednesday, September 3, 2008
by: Sher Holloway
Three sites that will increase your web traffic for free!What good is a website if no one visits? And how do you get traffic to your website without spending a fortune?
Getting visitors to your website doesn't have to be hard and you don't have to spend hundreds of dollars to find out how to get more traffic. It just involves some common sense.What do you do when someone wants to visit your house, but doesn't know where it is? You give them directions to find it.
The same applies to your website. You've got to tell potential visitors how to find it. The more people you tell, the more people you will have visit.
Below are three places that can increase your website traffic for free.
All you have to do is put some elbow grease into it and these websites can help serve as the map to your site.
1. DMOZ. http://www.dmoz.org: If this isn't your first website, I don't have to tell you how important it is to be listed in DMOZ. But just in case this is your first trip around the net, you HAVE to be listed in DMOZ. Why? The short version is because a listing with them will ensure listings with others. Go there right now and spend some time looking for the perfect category for your site. Once you've found it, click on "suggest URL" and enter your information. DMOZ is selective, so be sure your website is in tip top shape first.
2. Family-Content: http://www.Family-Content.com. The owner of Family Content, Donna Schwartz Mills, is providing a wonderful service to webmasters. Essentially you write a short article on any subject about which you have some knowledge. Whether it's how to wax a mustache or how to bake bread or how to make a million dollars, everyone has something to write. Spell check your article, check for errors in grammar and most importantly, add a resource box at the end. Once you submit your article to Family Content other webmasters are allowed to use your content for free in their websites or ezines so long as they keep your resource box intact. Every person that reads your article... and that can amount to A LOT...will also have the opportunity to visit your website. Not sure what a resource box is? You'll see mine at the end of this article.
3. The Business Owner's Idea Cafe: http://www.IdeaCafe.com. This is one of the best sites for small business owners and people who hope to someday be small business owners on the net. They've been mentioned in everything from The Wall Street Journal to Business Week to USA Today. The Business Owner's Idea Cafe can help you increase traffic to your site for free in two ways.
First of all, they have a vast message board of sorts that covers a variety of topics. Search the boards, called Cyberschmooz, to find a topic to which you have something to contribute. Write a well thought out reply and as you should already be in the practice of doing whenever you post to any message board, add a link to your website after your name.
If you've been in business over six months, you should also submit your "biz profile" in their "Biz Celebrities" section. If you're accepted, your website will be prominently displayed on the front page of their site along with a story about you and what you do.
It's not easy to get listed and for goodness sake, don't try to submit your business the very first time you visit their site. But, once you've become familiar with who they are, what they do and what they are looking for, you have a shot.
There you have it. Three places you can visit on the Internet that can dramatically increase the traffic to your website completely free.
You can start right now and before you know it, you'll see a jump in the number of visitors to your website.
What are you waiting for? Get busy!
About the author:Be sure and visit http://www.momandher/Visit http://www.momandhermoney.com/today for lots more free information about working from home."Make more, spend less, be happy!"
Tuesday, June 24, 2008
Paleta flavorsPaleta flavors can be divided in two categories: milk-based and ice-based.
Milk-based flavors are creamy in texture and traditionally include vanilla, chocolate, rum, coconut, pecan/walnut (nuez), and arroz con leche, which is a type of rice pudding.
Paletas in United States
While paletas have been sold as a street food in Hispanic-American communities in the United States for many years, the last decade has seen a growth in U.S.-based brands and marketing.
Another famous paleteria in the United States is Las Paletas in Nashville. The small shop owned by two sisters has been featured in numerous publications and has recently been filmed by the Food Network
Paletas and Tree Care
During the hot summer months in Los Angeles paletas are used as a fuel source and as refreshment for the Tree Care Department at TreePeople.
Monday, April 14, 2008
In 1924, George and Ira collaborated on a musical comedy, Lady Be Good which included such future standards as "Fascinating Rhythm" and "Lady Be Good."
Saturday, March 15, 2008
When you feel hurt disappointed, burned-out or used, would it help you to know that your thoughts created those feelings.
The simplest way to change your feelings is to change your thoughts. This article provides a little known key to understanding feelings.
To become aware of our feelings, we need to know that they always follow thought. Once we truly understand this, we can develop a new relationship with them.
When we think of a lemon, we automatically salivate, and maybe even pucker; this is a physiological response. In the same way, every time we have a thought we have an emotional response.
Our responses often are conditioned through our experiences and training. These emotional patterns are easily triggered.
When we believe that feelings come first, that they happen to us, then we are powerless and at their mercy.
Road rage, domestic violence, people exploding at a salesclerk over having to wait a turn, and parents yelling at their kids in public exemplify out-of-control emotions.
Had the people involved understood that they could choose which thoughts to focus on and thereby the feelings they experience, none of these events would have happened.
The thinking that promotes hurt feelings comes from our patterns and programming; it comes out of stored past experience or fear. It's the ingrained expectation of how things should be, the fear of being seen as a bad parent, the belief that we have to do all things and be all things beyond what's humanly possible.
This is computer-mode thinking, in which we frantically search our files of experience for answers to current situations, hoping for new outcomes. The computer mind holds no new answers; it can only offer a repeat performance.
When we're seeking a new level of experience, we need to move to a new level of thinking. We need to shift to the transmitter mind, our natural brilliance. Everything we need to know to create more harmonious lives is available to us there.
Our brilliance gives us understanding that leads to patience with other drivers on the road. It gives us insight that leads to seeing ourselves and others with acceptance. We can be at peace while waiting in long lines. We can be kindhearted and loving with our children even when we're tired and stretched.
In any situation, we have access to a new understanding. We can stop for a moment, refocus our thinking, and relax into a new level of peace and well-being. By rethinking from our natural brilliance, we create harmonious feelings. By choosing a higher order of thinking, we choose happier lives
Wednesday, March 5, 2008
Maintaining a healthy weight and enjoying a long vibrant life all depends on how well you balance the foods you eat on a daily basis. Have you ever heard of the term "you are what you eat?" If yes, then you must know that junk in equals junk out when it comes to diet. A healthy breakfast could mean the difference between having energy throughout the day or crash and burning before lunch. The body needs certain vitamins and minerals to perform at optimal efficiency throughout the day. When you deprive the body of these nutrients, it can be dangerous.
Below are the four major tips that you can follow to assure a healthy eating lifestyle.
1. Skipping meals is a big no!
Three meals a day is the best way to go about eating right and maintains a healthy body and weight. Skipping meals lead to what I call "grazing", this is when you go around eating any and everything within reach. Many people skip breakfast, but by lunch they have already raided the snack machine for two bags of chips, a candy bar, and a soda pop. If they had eaten a good breakfast, those empty calories would not have entered their bodies. When we are hungry, we are more likely to eat the wrong foods. Eating three meals a day preferably at the same time everyday is a big step to having a healthy eating lifestyle.
When taking long trips or going on vacation, you should take your meals with you, or purchase meals from health food stores in the area you are staying. I know it can be hard, especially with a fast food restaurant on every corner, but this is what you have to do in order to stay in tiptop shape. If it were easy, everyone would be slim and trim.
2. Learning to prepare foods is another great step in the right direction.
When it comes to cooking, many things can be done to ensure you are preparing the foods in a healthy way. Instead of frying, you should be boiling, grilling, or baking. In addition, you should try using fresh and dried herbs for seasoning instead of salt and other high sodium seasons. Finally yet importantly skin and fat should be taken off all meats before you prepare them.
3. Sugar is your enemy; it is not your friend!
Avoiding sugar is sometimes not that easy, but if you put your mind to it, you can do it. Soft drinks and juices contain nothing but sugar, and should be avoided due to their abundance of empty calories. Empty calories are calories that contain no nutritional value and are easily stored as fat. Sodas and juices should not be a substitute for water. Water is the only liquid you should drink on a regular basis. The others can be used as a treat, or once a day, but do not overdo it.
4. Avoid diet fads like the plague.
Diets of any kind should always be avoided. Fats and carbs have their places in a healthy diet. Moderation is the key, not fad diets. Limiting your carbs and increasing fats and vice versa could be dangerous. Another thing to look out for are pre-packaged diet foods, although they may be low in fat or carbs most of them are high in sodium. Therefore, eating different foods with fats and carbs using moderation and not overdoing it -- is just as good as or even better than fad diets.
The majority of people who get on these diets gain the weight back within a year. Not only do they gain back the weight they lost, but also they gain even more. Eating healthy and exercise is all you need for a healthy lifestyle. Following these four tips will have you on the right path in no time
Thursday, February 28, 2008
Would you know if you had lymphoma? Do you even know what to look for? Below is a short description of lymphoma and information on the symptoms to look for, how the doctor will diagnose it and the possible treatments available today.
What is lymphoma?Lymphoma is a type of cancer that affects the lymphocyte cells of the immune system. It generally originates in one or more of the lymph glands and causes them to swell to the point that they become uncomfortable although not painful. The common lymph glands that are first affected include those in the neck, in the armpit area and in the groin. Unfortunately the cancerous lymphocytes can break away from the main growth in the lymph glands and travel around the body in the lymphatic system and in the blood. This means that lymphoma often affects the entire body and causes symptoms in areas far from the original site of growth.
What are the common symptoms of lymphoma? There are a number of common signs and symptoms that are associated with lymphoma however it must be pointed out that these symptoms can also be caused by numerous, less severe conditions and so anyone suffering with any of the following symptoms should not self-diagnose lymphoma. The common symptoms include:
Swollen lymph glands – although these often develop in the neck, armpit and groin areas they can also develop in the chest and these lymph glands can not be felt externally. This means that they can be swollen for some time without causing any external swelling that can be felt with the fingers.
Fever and night sweats – because cancerous cells are present in the body the immune system launches an attack and this causes the body’s internal temperature to rise, which is felt as a fever.
Unexplained weight loss - lymphoma can affect any system within the body and occasionally it affects the digestive system which then fails to function at its best. This means that food is not absorbed properly and the body begins to lose weight.
Tiredness and fatigue – again this can occur when the digestive system is affected and the impaired food absorption leaves the body with little energy. It also occurs because the body is constantly trying to fight the spread and development of cancerous cells.
How is lymphoma diagnosed? Usually the doctor will have an idea of the diagnosis from your description of the symptoms and from performing a physical examination i.e. to feel for swelling in the lymph glands. From here he/she will refer you to the hospital for further tests which may include x-rays, CT and MRI scans to see how far the cancerous cells have spread, blood tests and even bone marrow biopsies. These tests will be able to confirm the presence of lymphoma and they will pinpoint exactly what type of lymphoma you have and how far it has progressed.
How is lymphoma treated? There are a number of ways that lymphoma can be treated however the exact course of treatment will depend on a number of factors including what type of lymphoma is present, how far it has spread, how fast it is growing and your general state of health. The options include chemotherapy, radiotherapy and bone marrow transplants however every case is different and your course of therapy will be individual to your illness so that you have the best chance of recovery possible
Nearly all cultures throughout history have been subject to the myth of the all-powerful sword. China's history is filled with legendary swords and swordsmen some of whom even rose to the levels of gods. The Japanese have the legendary Samurai with their world famous katana, often referred to as the Samurai sword. Cossack, Moor, and other Muslim cultures are often remembered as mounted, saber-wielding warriors. In Western Europe the medieval knights were in no way an exception to the sword culture. The sword's symbolic connection to the heraldic nobility remains to this day, although in ceremonial form only. For most cultures around the world, the sword still holds a position of reverence.
I have dueled and sparred with and against swords for many years and yet I am still amazed when the first words out of almost every new student are, 'I want to learn how to fight with a sword.' I explain that unless your armored and riding a horse whenever the sword is pitted against nearly any other ancient weapon of equal length or longer inevitability it comes up wanting. However, the invincible sword myth is so deeply ingrained in human culture that such warnings are rarely heeded, and predictably, the sword becomes most students' first focus.
The sword's true combat nature can only be revealed through the handling of the real thing, authentic replicas, and precise training weapons that are meticulously designed for proper accuracy and use. With the aide of such training tools the myth of the sword can be unlocked, not just from a historical approach but from a hands-on approach as well. Sadly, often schools do not follow an accuracy policy with training weapons or when sparring with weapons. This is one reason why there are so many misconceptions about genuine sword combat.
The Japanese sport of kendo is commonly believed to be a martial art based on dueling with katanas. Nothing could be further from the truth. The two are as different as kickball and baseball. The kendo sparring sword called a shinai is a straight sparring sword meant to be a safe representation of the katana. This very light weapon averages anywhere from 35" to 47" in length and is made of several straight strips of bamboo bound together with leather. With the exception of the lengths, the balance and design of this sparring tool from its tip to handle holds absolutely nothing in common with the Samurai's curved katana. The shinai blade is straight and its handle is long, round, and wrapped in a soft leather sheath. The katana blade is curved and its handle is long and somewhat egg shaped but a little more flat along the sides, and it is braided. The hits and points scored in sport kendo have more in common with European cudgel play or fencing than with a katana duel.
Points are most often scored with snapping hits as opposed to the drawing cuts that come naturally with a curved blade. Though snap cuts are also a part of the katana's arsenal they are not a staple of attack as in kendo. A closer representation would be sparring with curved wooden bokkens, which are considerably more accurate reproductions of the katana and were the traditional training weapon of the classical Bushi. The bokken offers a close though not completely accurate representation of a bladed katana duel and was often used for dueling as a replacement for real swords.
Miyamoto Musashi, arguably one of the greatest swordsmen in Japanese history, by his own account won several duels against katanas with a bokken. As with shinais, the same problem arises from modern and the ancient western forms of cudgel play. The rattan or other wooden forms of broadswords are bulkier, unbalanced, poorly weighted, and often have no obvious flat side to parry with. Because of these design flaws cudgel play can only be considered a sport not a form of combat. One should not compare these sport-related styles of combat to the real thing. A comparison cannot accurately be made if for no other reason than the sparring weapons are so dramatically removed in weight, shape, and design from the weapons they are supposed to replicate.
When a student reaches a high enough sword skill to spar against other types of weapons, the design flaws of the sword as a singly competitive weapon become painfully obvious. It is not long after this realization that the sword student fades out of the picture along with dreams of becoming an invincible swordsman. The few persistent sword students who remain quickly find the value of an added weapon to their free hand. Shields, maces, flails, daggers, or other swords become the new order of training. With a little more sparring, the student begins to see the ultimate truth behind the myth of the sword. Even with the aid of another weapon, it is a very difficult task for a swordsman to defeat longer-reaching weapons. When a swordsman is matched up against a weapon that is longer and therefore holds greater reach capabilities that swordsman's chance of survival drops dramatically. Without the aid of a companion weapon, even a highly skilled swordsman finds it difficult to defeat lesser skilled opponents with longer- reaching weapons.
The sword master Miyamoto Musashi, victor of sixty life-and-death encounters, was in a famous duel of record against the long-swordsman, Sasaki Kojiro. Kojiro called his sword 'clothes pole' because of its unique design: a long, straight, blade quite the contrary to its contemporary, the curved katana. When Musashi dueled Kojiro, he was not wielding a curved katana of his own or even using his famous two-sword style. Instead he wisely used a large, carved boat oar to defeat his opponent. This boat oar gave Musashi two very important advantages: first he did not have to concern himself with the angles of his cuts, and second, he did not have to worry about parrying with his sword and having it destroyed by a big boat oar. It is no mystery why Musashi won this duel.
When two duelers meet and are equal or even close to equal in skills, the odds go to the dueler with the technological advantage. I know the entertainment industry would have us believe otherwise, but when it comes to sparring or dueling with weapons, you can't change the math behind the design of the weapon, techniques, and the movement the weapon's nature requires. George Silver, an accomplished dueler and prizefighter who wrote two treatises on combat in 1599, Brief Instructions and Paradoxes of Defense pointed out in his works, and I paraphrase, "He who moves in the least amount of space and time, moves ahead of his opponent and so stays out of harm while being able to inflect harm." To make Silver's point consider the story of David and Goliath. Goliath is unrivaled on the battlefield and no Israelite can stand against him in single combat.
He holds several advantages over his opponents: he is stronger and so can attack and defend with more power than his opponent; he is taller which gives him the ability to both outreach and outstride his opponents; and he is undefeated, which gives him a psychological advantage over his opponents. Goliath would likely have been armored and have the contemporary weapons of the times, bronze or leather armor, a bronze or wicker shield, spear, and according to legend a great sword.
On the other side of the dueling scale is the boy, David. David is a mere sheep-herding child, not even a warrior in the traditional sense. David's only weapon is a sling. It would appear that the scales tip heavily in favor of Goliath, but a more detailed look reveals the opposite. The sling is a formidable weapon in this realm of single combat, especially single combat on an open battlefield that offers room to maneuver. Bearing in mind the nature of the ground in the Middle East, David also had plenty of rocks to choose from while maneuvering. Out of necessity as a sheepherder, he would have been a well-practiced slinger and skilled at keeping predators away from the herd with endless days to spend flinging rocks with his sling to pass the time away.
With those skills he could have continually launched a rock at Goliath for every other step Goliath did or did not take, all the while staying out of reach of Goliath's weapons; thus fulfilling Silvers' recipe for victory. Due to its translation through time, the story has led us to believe that David's sling was both laughable and ultimately a shock to Goliath. Neither would be true, the sling has been around for a long time and was a commonplace weapon in early biblical warfare. It is reasonable to believe that Goliath was defeated because of the nature of the weapon's reach, the terrain conditions, and the psychological effects of the whole scheme of things, i.e., the undefeated war giant versus a sheep-herding boy with everybody watching.
How much time would Goliath spend hiding behind his shield from a boy while the Philistine and Israeli armies watched? Let us assume that Goliath, like every other solider during biblical warfare, has seen a sling in action before, as opposed to the common belief that he thought it laughable and fell victim to his overconfidence. Goliath could hide behind his shield and try to close within sword range, but in order to hit David he has to be able to see him. When Goliath exposes his face to look, David only needs to time his next rock for impact into that exposed moment. It is nearly impossible to successfully time a parry against a missile weapon launched at close range. The smaller the projectile, David's rock, the more difficult it is to see, calculate its speed, and accurately react to defending the target area of its destination.
Also added to David's advantages is he can launch his rocks continually. With the sling David can follow a familiar formula: he can attack repeatedly while remaining out of reach of his opponent's assaults. At best Goliath would have had the opportunity for one spear throw at David, but again at the cost of over exposing himself to David's faster sling attacks. After that spear throw its back to sword range. Whatever tactic Goliath used we all know the result of it.
Musashi used a similar technique to David's against the chain and sickle fighter Shishido Baiken. Again, rather than use his sword and face the extra challenges that comes with it, Musashi opts to make a close range throw of his tanto, a Japanese dagger which hits and kills his unsuspecting opponent. In the West, one seldom hears of duels pitting a sword against another type of weapon. In Europe it was considered an unfair advantage to mix weapons during duels. The European duel was as often a matter of righting wrongs and maintaining honor as it was about issues of martial skills. In the East reasons for dueling ranged from matters of honor to testing martial skills. One dueled with whatever weapon one specialized in, and it was believed if you were a warrior you should be able to defend yourself with your weapon regardless of what your opponent was using, the only true rule was to win. This is a much harder test of skills than to be protected by the equality of weapons. Knowing this, one must question why dueling with the katana did not reach its peak until after the age of elite Samurai warriors.
After the dismantling of the Samurai class, an action that turned the once proud warrior class into living archives of an age gone for good. During this later era, most Japanese field weapons became obsolete and where impractical to carry in public. With a major decline in the use of most battlefield weapons, the time for the sword to shine was at hand. The katana became the Samurai's last symbolic hold on an ancient warrior system soon to be completely outdated by cheaper and more efficient guns.
The replacement of the elite warrior class by the gun was not a phenomenon known only to the Japanese. The gun in its own time systematically brought about the dismantling of the elite warrior classes worldwide. The Chinese Boxers, the Scots Highlanders, the Zulu, the Aborigines, and the American Indians were among the last holdouts of the warrior elite, and they all fell victim to the gun. For most of these warrior cultures the sword became a symbolic relic of an age far more romantic then it actually was. Since the end of the elite warrior classes the facts regarding the sword and its value as a weapon have been exaggerated far and away beyond its real functions as an instrument of war.
The sword has several weaknesses as a combat weapon. Due to its limited reach or in the case of the great sword, excessive length; one has less time for reaction to an opponent's attack. The sword's edge is fragile and easily damaged so parries need to be made with the flat of the blade, making defense both complicated and cumbersome. The tang of the sword, the blade's extension into the handle, receives most of the impact when parrying and can be prone to breaking. Many styles of the sword offered little hand protection and so the hand of a swordsman was a primary target. To counter this, some swords were built with elaborate basket-like guards to protect the hand. There are accounts of the basket-hilt broadsword of Scottish highlander fame having to be pried off of the Highlander's hand after battle due to its collapsing under the pressure of enemy blows.
The sword is complicated to learn, time consuming to make, and generally an expensive arm. In medieval Europe, a single-handed broadsword could cost as much as 25,000 dollars by today's standards. The Japanese katana was, in its own fashion, an equally high-priced weapon. One can see the obvious reasons why, during Eastern and Western sword histories, the weapon was really more of a class and power symbol than a mainstream weapon for war. There is a Japanese house code that states "Do not yearn for katanas and tantos created by famous masters. A katana or tanto worth 10,000 pieces can be defeated by 100 yari (spears) each costing a 100 pieces. It is better to purchase 100 spears and arm 100 spearmen, in this way you can defended yourself in time of war." (Toshikage Jushichikajo, 1480)
Today the sword and Samurai have nearly become the same word. Yet during the height of the age of the Samurai, the bow, naginata, and spear were the main focus for war. The bow is found in the earliest history of Samurai warfare and the Yari-Samurai, elite spearmen, mounted or on foot, were among the highest valued warriors in a warlord's army. The katana was more often used as a backup weapon and for personal ritualized dueling. In most cultures during the age of battlefield dueling, duels were fought on horseback with bows or lances. If the warrior lost either of those weapons, he then used his sword as a last ditch effort to save or take his life. Around the same time the drafted peasant soldier of the late nineteenth century came into full force, the sword, due to its impractical functions on the battlefield, was eventually reduced to an ornamental symbol of authority. During the Second World War the ancient Samurai sword that was made using the secrets of a holy swordsmith still remained among the upper class, but the sword for the average officer was a 1933 mass-produced weapon.
This 1933 version was designed so that the older traditional katana blade could fit into the handle and replace the standard contemporary blade.
Because of the entertainment industry from ancient times to the present, the myth of the swordsman's abilities has always been far beyond any true feat of real swordsmanship. The western broadsword has followed the same path as the eastern swords, only it has been even further reduced into a simplistic, shining hip-hanger used only for parade. The Chinese straight sword has not escaped this symbolism either. It has been reduced to a lightweight flimsy show piece far more suitable for fast acrobatic Wu-Su routines then actual combat. What the general public has been led to believe almost entirely through the media is that the sword was the most powerful dueling weapon of all times. There are many reasons why the sword could not actually hold this title. First as mentioned is reach; second, arch versus thrust; third and most important, exposure.
To better explain the realities of sword combat and the troubles a swordsman would have, consider facing a spearman with a sword. To start the swordsman's troubles, the spearman need only keep the swordsman the distance of a spear thrust away. In doing so, the swordsman is put in danger of spear attacks while his target, the spearman, remains out of reach. Being out of reach of the attacks of his opponent, the spearman has many advantages added to his hopes of self-preservation. A spear, or even a lance of ten feet or less, can both cut and thrust like a sword and so deliver a variety of attacks without fear of immediate counterattack. For the swordsman to survive, he needs to close the distance on his opponent while trying to ward off thrusts and cuts from the attacking spear. The spearman need only keep attacking while retreating or circling a few steps if necessary. This is comparable to a man with an empty eighteenth-century musket fighting a ten-pace duel against a man with a colt revolver. Unless an act of God occurs, the musketeer is in for hard times.
The next problem is the issue of arch versus thrust. Everyone has seen a movie where the hapless spearman comes charging in with a stiff-armed thrust at the hero, who is always a swordsman, who jumps to the side and chops the oncoming spear in two. This is a perfect example of the mythological power of the arching sword stroke in its full absurdity. If the swordsman were to attempt a wasted motion like trying to cut the assaulting spear in two, it would be an ill-fated move for two reasons: it seriously exposes the swordsman to a counterattack, and it is an almost impossible cut to make. It is one thing to cut in two a shaft stuck firmly in the ground, it is another thing entirely to try and cut in two a free-floating shaft that deflects on impact.
Try hanging a spear-like shaft in the air by attaching a rope to the butt of the shaft and attaching another rope at a halfway point. Then try to chop that shaft in two with a single or several strokes. When you are through shaking your head, all those great movies will be ruined forever. The easily imagined results of this simple test are exactly like the real results of such a cut. The reader can see just how unlikely performing that cut actually is. Some Arthurian legends claimed the sword, Excalibur, could cut a boulder in two as though the rock was made of butter. Strangely, no sword culture can deny having myths of an equal nature to that of Excalibur's. There is also a Japanese legend of a katana so sharp that when it was left stuck in a stream, floating leaves were not sliced in-two by it but actually purposely avoided the sword's edge. Legends of this nature have always led the populous into believing that in the realm of edged weapons, the sword holds full royalties on slicing and chopping abilities. This is simply not true regarding personal combat.
All of the elite warrior-based cultures knew and used the advantages of thrusting and slicing with a spear as well as other long-reaching weapons. The difficulties of getting past that deadly reaching spear would be no small task for a swordsman. In addition to this reach advantage, even a moderately skilled spear fighter can deliver several thrusts or cuts to an oncoming swordsman before that sword can reach its target. History has shown us that one of those many spear cuts would be to either to the swordsman's lead knee, hand, arm, or foot. A good hit to any of these areas would end the swordsman's attack promptly.
A common misjudgment is that a large portion of a weapon's edge needs to strike the surface to do any real damage. An edge need only penetrate the depth of three fingers in the right areas of the human anatomy to be a fatal hit or lead to one. Though the stroke to the knee is not a fatal blow, worldwide archaeological finds from battle sites involving ancient weapons have consistently shown that such a wound led to a final lethal blow. In these archaeological digs, large percentages of the fallen were first struck at the bend of the knee, or other exposed appendages, and then delivered a fatal blow while they lay prostrate from the first injury. By studying the results of many years of full-contact dueling with training and blunted weapons, I have rarely found this cut to a charging opponent's knee, ankle or foot to fail. An equally successful tactic is thrusting into the opponent's oncoming feet.
When infantry used swords and shields against lance-carrying cavalry, the results nearly always ended in disaster for the foot soldier. When foot soldiers replaced swords with spears and lances, the disaster fell on the heavy cavalry. It was so effective that infantry pike units became the standard for hundreds of years. Pike units were not removed from the battlefield until the advent of efficient firearms sporting bayonets, which was not the demise of the pole weapon but rather a merger of pike and gun. When the sword is pitted against a spear, the swordsman also has to overcome the issue of too much exposure. Combat manuscripts of old break the sword down into sections depending on the type of sword.
The first third of the blade from its tip down was for cutting, the next third was for soft parries, and the final third above the hand guard was for heavy parries and coming to grips with your opponent. The old masters from the East and West also wrote that the preferred method of defense with a sword was simply to avoid your opponent's attacks physically and through footwork. This method was preferred over jeopardizing your sword's cutting edge and its structural integrity by using it to fend off blows from other weapons. With exceptions, the sword length averages from 20 to 42 inches. On the contrary, the smallest battlefield spear is around six feet in length with a shaft designed for warding off blows from other weapons. The swordsman must also overcome the limited range of his defense, referring not only to the sword's reach but also the axis with which one can parry and so defend the body.
Take into account the mechanics of the human body and the length, manner, and design of the weapon being used. The nature of the sword creates a problem when defending above or below the waist. The problem is to defend one's body above or below one must, by the nature of the sword, expose the opposite of what is defended. This is true with all weapons but to a higher degree with sword and similar weapons. The pole arm offers considerably more options. By tipping the weapon vertically, horizontally, or diagonally out from the body, one can readily defend and strike from any axis of the body. The pole arm fighter does not even have to resort to this guard until the swordsman gets in close enough to be a threat. The swordsman, on trying to close, has to defend too much exposed area and so is subject to attack at several areas on his body. To a large degree this is why the shield was developed. In most cultures, the shield was developed for war and not dueling.
The shield was designed to be part of a wall of shields used as a defensive battle tactic as demonstrated by the front lines of a Greek phalanx, the Roman turtle formation, and the Viking shield wall. In a duel or single combat, the shield is used in a considerably different manner than in a melee or mass melee. Regardless of how it is used, the shield can only effectively protect one side of the body during a charge and so forces the wielder to defend his opposite side with the sword. Because of the leverage that can be placed behind a thrusting or sweeping pole attack, the sword and its wielding arm cannot compete with the impact of an oncoming pole weapon As mentioned earlier, this is especially true when a sweeping spear cut or a thrust is delivered to the swordsman's stressed knee, ankle, or foot. Such an attack forces the swordsman to bring the tip of his sword down; the arm position would be the equivalent of completely emptying a drinking mug gripped in your hand. Doing this simple motion the reader can see how the position is both awkward and weak; furthermore, the position also exposes the upper torso. The lower guard that could be used exposes even more of the swordsman's body. A high or low, well-timed thrust or cut to this weak side will put an end to the charging swordsman.
Though I have used the spear here as the swordsman's nemesis, one can see that any weapon of greater length or weight would prove technologically superior. It becomes obvious why the swordsman's survival is so unlikely. The sword has come to stand on a solid throne where its powers are more mythical than the sword-wielding heroes themselves. We have come to believe the sword and its powers as the staple of all the classical warrior societies. Swords have been given names and positions of power; some were even believed to be magical. The right person with the right sword could smite injustice, slay the wicked, and restore kingdoms, assuming that is no one else shows up with a spear, halberd, pole-flail, rake, pitchfork, or sling. The entertainment industry may keep the sword on a throne of power and awe, but for those who have fought with and against the sword in all its manifestations, it's a translucent and mythological throne.
- ► 2012 (5)
- ► 2010 (6)
- ► 2009 (30)
- ► 11/30 - 12/07 (2)
- ► 11/23 - 11/30 (4)